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Summaries for selected questions from the ICT in Elections database
Country
Voter registration and identification
How is the national electoral register created?
Voter registration and identification
If electoral register is created by the EMB, which method is used?
Voter registration and identification
If electoral register is created by the EMB, what type of technology used for collecting registration data?
Voter registration and identification
If the EMB uses technology to collect voter registration data, is biometric data captured and used during registration?
Voter registration and identification
Is the biometric data used in voter identification at polling stations?
Voter registration and identification
Is technology used for identifying voters at polling stations (electronic poll books)?
Voter registration and identification
How technology is used in relation to paper voter lists?
E-voting
Is e-voting currently used in any elections with EMB participation?
E-voting
If e-voting is currently being used, what type(s) of technology used?
E-voting
If e-voting is currently being used, is it taking place in controlled or uncontrolled environment?
E-voting
If e-voting is currently being used, is it available for all voters or only some groups of voters?
E-voting
If e-voting is NOT currently being used, what is the current status of e-voting in general?
Processing of results
Are official election results processed by an electronic tabulation system?
Processing of results
If official election results processed by an electronic tabulation system, at which level results are entered into an electronic tabulation system?
Processing of results
In the last national election, how many days did it take for the EMB to establish final results?
Processing of results
In the last national election, how many days did it take for the EMB to announce certified results?
Usage of open source software in election administration
Does the country use open source software in electoral processes?
Usage of open source software in election administration
What are the key reasons for or against using open source systems?
Usage of open source software in election administration
What types of open source systems have been considered or used?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country provide individual online voter registration/polling assignment checks?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish the statistical overview of voter lists online?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish full voter registers at the polling station level online?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish full voter registers at the national level online?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish the lists of parties and/or candidates registered for elections online?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish the election (voting) results online?
Online data publication by EMBs
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, what is the level of aggregation?
Online data publication by EMBs
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, what is the level of detail?
Online data publication by EMBs
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, what is the timing of publication of results?
Online data publication by EMBs
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, are historical results also available?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish seat allocation data online?
Online data publication by EMBs
Does the country publish candidate/party financing reports online?
Algeria Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) No data No data No data No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting is not used but feasibility studies and/or tests are being carried out (see comments) Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 6 days Yes, assigned polling station using online interface Yes, at the national level No No No Yes, not machine readable National results are published Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) Close to real time, as results become available to EMB No Yes, not machine readable No
Angola Some combination of both (see comments) A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) No data Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No data No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 1 day 8 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No Yes, not machine readable No Yes, machine readable Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, machine readable No
Benin Extracted from a population/civil registry Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 4 days 10 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No No
Botswana Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Scanning technology for processing registration forms (Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) or Optical Character Recognition (OCR)) No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes National (central) EMB level 2 days 2 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) Close to real time, as results become available to EMB Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Burkina Faso Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 5 days 5 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, at the regional level
Yes, at the national level
Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at district level (CCCR)
Results aggregated at regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Burundi Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 5 days 15 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Cameroon Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 19 days 17 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable National results are published Only total votes cast has been announced After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Central African Republic Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, photos Yes No data No data No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No data No data 8 days 23 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No Yes, not machine readable No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No data No data
Chad Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No data No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 10 days 15 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the regional level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable National results are published Only votes received by candidates After availability of final results No No No
Comoros Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No Not applicable Two days for Presidential Elections No data Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No No
Congo, Democratic Republic of Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable Yes, in politically-binding national elections (elections for public office or direct democracy initiatives) Electronic ballot printers (EBPs) E-voting takes place in controlled environment All voters Not applicable Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 11 days for Presidential and 66 days for Legislative 18 days for Presidential and 66 days for Legislative Elections Using open source systems have never been considered The immense political pressure, lack of necessary infrastructure in the nation and poorly trained staff which has limited the adoption of improved electoral practices and systems in the nation. CENI has also not been adequately funded by the government due to the country’s poor economic state. Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No
Cote d'Ivoire Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes National (central) EMB level 3 days 15 days for Legislative Elections No data No data No data Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface Yes, at the department level
Yes, at the regional level
Yes, at the national level
No No No Yes, machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at regional level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, machine readable No
Djibouti Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 1 day for Presidential and Legislative Elections 11 days Using open source systems have never been considered Lack of technological infrastructure Not applicable Yes, assigned polling station using online interface No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No
Egypt Extracted from a population/civil registry Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) Final results as defined in this question were not announced by EMB 5 days in the 2018 Presidential Elections Open source systems are currently being introduced or are in use Not specified See comments Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the municipal level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, machine readable Yes, machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Equatorial Guinea Extracted from a population/civil registry Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 2 days for presidential elections; Election Day for legislative elections 3 days for presidential elections; Election Day for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered The country lacks technological infrastructure Not applicable No No No No No Yes, not machine readable National results are published
District
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Eritrea Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data No data Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 2 days 2 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No No
Eswatini Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Scanning technology for processing registration forms (Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) or Optical Character Recognition (OCR)) Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable Results are reported on the election day Results are reported on the election day Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No
Ethiopia Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Technology is not used Not applicable No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes National (central) EMB level 1 day for legislative elections; 3 days for presidential elections 1 day for legislative elections; 28 days for presidential elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at regional level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Gabon Extracted from a population/civil registry Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 5 days for Presidential and 4 days for Legislative Elections 28 days for Presidential and 4 days for Legislative Elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No No
Gambia Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable Results are reported on the Election Day 5 days for Presidential Elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Ghana Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used instead of paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 3 days 3 days Using open source systems have never been considered Security concerns Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at the regional level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No No Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at regional level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Guinea Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 6 days 23 days Using open source systems have never been considered Lack of technological infrastructure Not applicable Yes, assigned polling station using online interface No No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Kenya Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Polling station level, online connected to central station 3 days for presidential elections; 6 days for legislative elections 5 days for presidential elections; 9 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Security issues and sensitivity of the data Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
Ward
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable
Yes, machine readable
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) Close to real time, as results become available to EMB No Yes, not machine readable No
Lesotho Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) No data No data No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 3 days 3 days No data No data No data No Yes, at the national level No No Yes, machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Liberia Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Scanning technology for processing registration forms (Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) or Optical Character Recognition (OCR)) Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes National (central) EMB level 9 days 9 days No data No data No data Yes, assigned polling station using online interface Yes, at the national level
County
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
County
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) Not specified Yes No No
Libya Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Mobile registration system (SMS texting) No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes National (central) EMB level 10 days 24 days Open source systems are currently being introduced or are in use To advance widespread voter registration and electoral participation Ubuntu server, python, and Django framework Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable
Yes, machine readable
Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Madagascar Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes No data 10 days 28 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the municipal level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
Results aggregated at regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Malawi Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used The MEC attempted to use an electronic system during the 2014 election, but it failed. A system with electronic tabulation at the polling station level (online) was attempted but failed during the 2014 elections 8 days for presidential elections; 11 days for legislative elections 8 days for presidential elections; 11 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the municipal level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No No Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes No No
Mali Some combination of both (see comments) A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Not applicable Biometric data (photo) is extracted from civil registry database Yes No data No data No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 2 days for presidential elections; 3 days for legislative elections 5 days for presidential elections; 3 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No No
Mauritania Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 1 day 9 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at the national level Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Yes, machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at regional (wilaya) level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Mauritius Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 3 days 3 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
village level, ward level and city level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at constituency level Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) Close to real time, as results become available to EMB Yes Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable
Morocco Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Online registration, together with traditional registration No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable No data Using open source systems have never been considered Absence of vibrant electoral structures that has limited the adoption of open source technology Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
Results aggregated at province level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Mozambique Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 12 days 69 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the regional level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Namibia Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists Yes, in politically-binding national elections (elections for public office or direct democracy initiatives) Direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines with and without voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) E-voting takes place in controlled environment All voters Not applicable Yes Polling station level, offline 3 days 3 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the regional level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at regionallevel
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Total votes cast, and votes cast for each candidate/party. After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Niger Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 8 days 28 days (Presidential Elections) Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at commune level
Results aggregated at department level
Results aggregated at regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Nigeria Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used instead of paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting is not used but feasibility studies and/or tests are being carried out (see comments) Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 4 days 2 days Open source systems are currently being introduced or are in use For: Easy to use, robust, and secure. Ubuntu, a Linux Operating System used for voter identification and external storage devices Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable National results are published Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Republic of The Congo (Brazzaville) Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 3 days 17 days Using open source systems have never been considered Lack of technological infrastructure Not applicable No No No No No Yes, not machine readable National results are published Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No
Rwanda Extracted from a population/civil registry Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 6 days 2 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the municipal level
Yes, at the constituency level
No No No Yes, machine readable National results are published
Regional level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Senegal Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos
Signatures
No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 8 days 9 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the national level No No No Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Seychelles Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 1 day 1 day Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
No No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No Yes, not machine readable No
Sierra Leone Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting is not used but feasibility studies and/or tests are being carried out (see comments) Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) Presidential elections: 6 days for the 1st round and 4 days for the 2nd round 6 days for presidential elections; 14 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the district level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at constituency level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes No No
Somalia Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos
iris scans
South Africa Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Scanning technology for processing registration forms (Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) or Optical Character Recognition (OCR))
Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line
No No Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting is not used but feasibility studies and/or tests are being carried out (see comments) Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 3 days 3 days Open source systems have been considered, but are not in use For: transparency, inclusivity and trust Not specified Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone
Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the municipal level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, machine readable Yes, machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at province level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, machine readable Yes, not machine readable
South Sudan Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 11 days for presidential elections; 30 days for legislative elections 11 days for presidential elections; 30 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No No No No No No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable No No No
Sudan Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Technology is not used No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 5 days for presidential elections; 11 days for legislative elections 11 days for presidential elections; 35 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at constituency level Name of the winner and number of votes After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Tanzania, United Republic of Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 2 days for Presidential Elections 5 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface Yes, at the national level No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable National results are published Number of votes for each candidate, The percentage of votes for each candidate. After availability of final results Yes Yes, machine readable No
Togo Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes National (central) EMB level 3 days for legislative elections (2018) 14 days for presidential elections; 18 days for legislative elections Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable No Yes, at the national level No No No Yes, not machine readable National results are published Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results No No No
Tunisia Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) SMS system and online registration for expats No No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 3 days 21 days Using open source systems is still under consideration Not specified Online map for election centers. Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at the regional level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes No No
Uganda Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos
Signatures
Yes Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data Technology is used instead of paper voter lists No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 2 days for Presidential Elections 42 days for Presidential Elections Using open source systems have never been considered Security issues Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the district level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at district level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Zambia Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos Yes No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Yes Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 8 days for Legislative Elections 5 days for Presidential and 3 days for Legislative Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface
Yes, at polling station level
Yes, at the constituency level
Yes, at the district level
Yes, at the province level
Yes, at the national level
No No Yes, not machine readable Yes, not machine readable Results aggregated at province level
Results aggregated at constituency level
National results are published
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Zimbabwe Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos No No Not applicable No, e-voting is not used currently Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E-voting has never been used No Not applicable 4 days for Presidential Elections and 3 days for Legislative Elections 3 days Using open source systems have never been considered Not specified Not applicable Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface Yes, at polling station level No No No Yes, machine readable Results aggregated at polling station level
Results aggregated at municipal level
Results aggregated at constituency level
Results aggegated at provincial level
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) After availability of final results Yes Yes, not machine readable No
Summary of Data
How is the national electoral register created?
Value Count
Extracted from a population/civil registry 5 (10.0%)
Created by the EMB using its own data collection and/or other sources of data 43 (86.0%)
Some combination of both (see comments) 2 (4.0%)
No data 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If electoral register is created by the EMB, which method is used?
Value Count
A continuous register (voter data is continuously collected and updated between electoral events) 37 (74.0%)
A periodic register (old data is discarded and new voter register is created for each electoral event) 7 (14.0%)
No data 1 (2.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 5 (10.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If electoral register is created by the EMB, what type of technology used for collecting registration data?
Value Count
Scanning technology for processing registration forms (Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) or Optical Character Recognition (OCR)) 4 (7.8%)
Digital voter registration kits/computers, off-line 27 (52.9%)
Digital voter registration kits/computers, online connected to central database 0 (0.0%)
No data 3 (5.9%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 6 (11.8%)
Technology is not used 9 (17.6%)
Other 3 (5.9%)
Total 51
Missing data 0
Grand total 51
If the EMB uses technology to collect voter registration data, is biometric data captured and used during registration?
Value Count
Yes, fingerprint scans 0 (0.0%)
Yes, photos 1 (2.0%)
Yes, both fingerprint scans and photos 27 (52.9%)
No 14 (27.5%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
No data 2 (3.9%)
Not applicable 6 (11.8%)
Other 4 (7.8%)
Total 51
Missing data 0
Grand total 51
Is the biometric data used in voter identification at polling stations?
Value Count
Yes 21 (42.0%)
No 26 (52.0%)
No data 3 (6.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Is technology used for identifying voters at polling stations (electronic poll books)?
Value Count
Yes, online/connected to central voter register 0 (0.0%)
Yes, offline/only access to polling station registration data 9 (18.0%)
No 39 (78.0%)
No data 2 (4.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
How technology is used in relation to paper voter lists?
Value Count
Technology is used in addition to paper voter lists 6 (12.0%)
Technology is used instead of paper voter lists 3 (6.0%)
No data 2 (4.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 39 (78.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Is e-voting currently used in any elections with EMB participation?
Value Count
Yes, in politically-binding national elections (elections for public office or direct democracy initiatives) 2 (4.0%)
Yes, in politically-binding sub-national elections (e.g. elections for regional legislature or executive office etc.) 0 (0.0%)
Yes, in other elections with EMB participation (e.g. election of trade union leaders, non-binding referendums) 0 (0.0%)
No, e-voting is not used currently 48 (96.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
No data 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If e-voting is currently being used, what type(s) of technology used?
Value Count
Direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines with and without voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) 1 (2.0%)
Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) or Optical Character Recognition (OCR) 0 (0.0%)
Electronic ballot printers (EBPs) 1 (2.0%)
Internet voting systems 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
No data 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 48 (96.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If e-voting is currently being used, is it taking place in controlled or uncontrolled environment?
Value Count
E-voting takes place in controlled environment 2 (4.0%)
E-voting takes place in uncontrolled environment 0 (0.0%)
In combination of both environments 0 (0.0%)
No data 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 48 (96.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If e-voting is currently being used, is it available for all voters or only some groups of voters?
Value Count
All voters 2 (4.0%)
Voters from abroad 0 (0.0%)
Voters in particular constituencies (see comments) 0 (0.0%)
Military voters 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
No data 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 48 (96.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If e-voting is NOT currently being used, what is the current status of e-voting in general?
Value Count
E-voting has never been used 41 (82.0%)
E-voting had been used but has been abandoned (see comments) 0 (0.0%)
E-voting is not used but feasibility studies and/or tests are being carried out (see comments) 4 (8.0%)
No data 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 5 (10.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Are official election results processed by an electronic tabulation system?
Value Count
Yes 26 (52.0%)
No 22 (44.0%)
No data 1 (2.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 1 (2.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If official election results processed by an electronic tabulation system, at which level results are entered into an electronic tabulation system?
Value Count
Polling station level, offline 1 (2.0%)
Polling station level, online connected to central station 1 (2.0%)
Between polling station level and central level (see comments) 17 (34.0%)
National (central) EMB level 6 (12.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
No data 2 (4.0%)
Not applicable 22 (44.0%)
Other 1 (2.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
In the last national election, how many days did it take for the EMB to establish final results?
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
In the last national election, how many days did it take for the EMB to announce certified results?
Total 48
Missing data 3
Grand total 51
Does the country use open source software in electoral processes?
Value Count
Open source systems are currently being introduced or are in use 3 (6.1%)
Using open source systems have never been considered 41 (83.7%)
Using open source systems is still under consideration 1 (2.0%)
Open source systems have been considered, but are not in use 1 (2.0%)
Open source systems were used, but have been abandoned 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
No data 3 (6.1%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 49
Missing data 2
Grand total 51
What are the key reasons for or against using open source systems?
Value Count
No data 3 (6.1%)
Not specified 34 (69.4%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Other 12 (24.5%)
Total 49
Missing data 2
Grand total 51
What types of open source systems have been considered or used?
Value Count
No data 3 (6.1%)
Not specified 1 (2.0%)
Not applicable 41 (83.7%)
Other 4 (8.2%)
Total 49
Missing data 2
Grand total 51
Does the country provide individual online voter registration/polling assignment checks?
Value Count
No 24 (48.0%)
Yes, confirmation of registration using online interface 20 (40.0%)
Yes, assigned polling station using online interface 16 (32.0%)
Yes, confirmation of registration using mobile phone 8 (16.0%)
Yes, assigned polling station using mobile phone 8 (16.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish the statistical overview of voter lists online?
Value Count
No 17 (34.0%)
Yes, at polling station level 10 (20.0%)
Yes, at the municipal level 5 (10.0%)
Yes, at the constituency level 12 (24.0%)
Yes, at the national level 31 (62.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 14 (28.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish full voter registers at the polling station level online?
Value Count
No 47 (94.0%)
Yes, access is restricted to selected stakeholders 0 (0.0%)
Yes, not machine readable 3 (6.0%)
Yes, machine readable 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish full voter registers at the national level online?
Value Count
No 46 (92.0%)
Yes, access is restricted to selected stakeholders 0 (0.0%)
Yes, not machine readable 4 (8.0%)
Yes, machine readable 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish the lists of parties and/or candidates registered for elections online?
Value Count
No 20 (40.0%)
Yes, not machine readable 27 (54.0%)
Yes, machine readable 4 (8.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish the election (voting) results online?
Value Count
No 10 (20.0%)
No, available only to selected stakeholders 0 (0.0%)
Yes, not machine readable 33 (66.0%)
Yes, machine readable 8 (16.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, what is the level of aggregation?
Value Count
Results aggregated at polling station level 15 (30.0%)
Results aggregated at municipal level 12 (24.0%)
Results aggregated at constituency level 20 (40.0%)
National results are published 32 (64.0%)
Not applicable 10 (20.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 25 (50.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, what is the level of detail?
Value Count
Full details (total votes cast, votes cast for each candidate/party, invalid votes) 35 (70.0%)
Not applicable 10 (20.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 5 (10.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, what is the timing of publication of results?
Value Count
Close to real time, as results become available to EMB 4 (8.0%)
After availability of final results 35 (70.0%)
Not applicable 10 (20.0%)
Not specified 1 (2.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
If the country publishes the election (voting) results online, are historical results also available?
Value Count
No 30 (60.0%)
Yes 17 (34.0%)
Not applicable 3 (6.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 0 (0.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish seat allocation data online?
Value Count
No 24 (48.0%)
Yes, not machine readable 21 (42.0%)
Yes, machine readable 4 (8.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 1 (2.0%)
Total 50
Missing data 1
Grand total 51
Does the country publish candidate/party financing reports online?
Value Count
No 46 (93.9%)
Yes, not machine readable 2 (4.1%)
Yes, machine readable 0 (0.0%)
Not applicable 0 (0.0%)
Not specified 0 (0.0%)
Other 1 (2.0%)
Total 49
Missing data 2
Grand total 51

Disclaimer: Maps presented do not imply on the part of the Institute any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement of such boundaries, nor does the placement or size of any country or territory reflect the political view of International IDEA. Maps are used in order to add visual clarity to data.