Malaysia

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This overview of Malaysia presents all the different themes of International IDEA's Unified Database in one page, including data about voter turnout, electoral systems, direct democracy and much more.

Voter Turnout

Parliamentary

Voter Turn­out
The voter turnout as defined as the percentage of registered voters who actually voted
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84.84%
(2013)
Total vote
The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes.
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11,257,147
(2013)
Regi­­stration
The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes (cut-off date), as reported by the electoral management body.
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13,268,002
(2013)
VAP Turn­out
The voter turnout as defined as the percentage of the voting age population that actually voted
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62.95%
(2013)
Voting age popu­­lation
The voting age population (VAP) includes all citizens above the legal voting age
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17,883,697
(2013)
Popu­lation
29,628,392
(2013)
Invalid votes
A vote needs to fulfill a number of criteria to be considered as valid.
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1.30%
(2013)
Freedom house
4
(2013)
Freedom house - Political Rights
The two measurements of Political Rights and Civil Liberties have been taken from Freedom House which uses these two categories as indicators of the levels of freedom in a country's political system. A rating of 1 indicates the highest degree of freedom and 7 the least amount of freedom.
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4
(2013)
Freedom house - Civil liberties
The two measurements of Political Rights and Civil Liberties have been taken from Freedom House which uses these two categories as indicators of the levels of freedom in a country's political system. A rating of 1 indicates the highest degree of freedom and 7 the least amount of freedom.
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4
(2013)
Compulsory voting
 No
(2013)

Presidential

No data found

EU Parliament

No data found

Gender quotas

General

Parliament type
 Bicameral
Voluntary political party quotas No data for this field
Additional information about gender quotas
Any other relevant information about gender quotas in this country
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No data for this field
Sources for gender quotas
Any academic articles, papers, journals, reports etc. that are useful resources for research in this country.
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No data for this field

Single/Lower House

Quota type
The type of quota employed in the country's Single/Lower or Upper House (if any)
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No data for this field
Total seats
The total number of seats elected to the Single/Lower or Upper House at any one time
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222
(2013)
Seats held by women
The number of seats held by women in the Single/Lower or Upper House at any one time
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23
(2013)
Seats held by men
The number of seats held by men in the Single/Lower or Upper House at any one time
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199
(2013)
Constitutional quota details
Does the quota derive from the constitution?
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No data for this field
Electoral law quota details
Does the quota derive from an electoral law?
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No data for this field
Political funding legislation quota details
Does the quota derive from political finance legislation?
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No data for this field
Legal sanctions for non-compliance
What are the sources of quotas that result in legal sanctions?
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No data for this field
Rank-order rules
Are there sources that result in rank order/placement rules?
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No data for this field

Upper house

Quota type No data for this field
Total seats
The total number of seats elected to the Single/Lower or Upper House at any one time
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59
(2014)
Seats held by women
The number of seats held by women in the Single/Lower or Upper House at any one time
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17
(2013)
Seats held by men
The number of seats held by men in the Single/Lower or Upper House at any one time
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42
(2013)
Constitutional quota details No data for this field
Electoral law quota details
Is an electoral law the source of gender quotas in the Single/Lower or Upper House?
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No data for this field
Political funding legislation quota details
Does the quota derive from political finance legislation?
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No data for this field
Legal sanctions for non-compliance
What are the sources of legal sanctions for non-compliance in the Single/Lower or Upper House?
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No data for this field
Rank-order rules
What are the sources of rank order/placement rules in the Single/Lower or Upper House?
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No data for this field
Electoral system No data for this field

Sub-National Level

No data found

Political Finance

Bans and limits on private income

Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
An important issue in many countries is to limit influence over national politics to forces within the country. Foreign interests such as governments, corporations, organisations and/or individuals may therefore be banned from making donations to political parties
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 No
Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
An important issue in many countries is to limit influence over national politics to forces within the country. Foreign interests such as governments, corporations, organisations and/or individuals may therefore be banned from making donations to political parties
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 No
Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
It is often discussed if corporations should be allowed to make donations to political parties, those in favour claim it is a matter of freedom of speech, those against argue that the influence of corporate interests over politics must be controlled.
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 No
Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
It is often discussed if corporations should be allowed to make donations to candidates, those in favour claim it is a matter of freedom of speech, those against argue that the influence of corporate interests over politics must be controlled.
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 No
Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts or partial government ownership to political parties?
A ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties is often intended to stop indirect abuse of state resources, whereas banning contributions from companies with government contracts often seek to reduce the risk for quid-pro-quo donations.
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 No
Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts or partial government ownership to candidates?
A ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates is often intended to stop indirect abuse of state resources, whereas banning contributions from companies with government contracts often seek to reduce the risk for quid-pro-quo donations.
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 No
Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
In some countries where corporations and trade unions are seen as more likely to donate to different political parties, it is argued that a ban on corporate donations should be combined with a ban on trade union donations
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 No
Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
In some countries where corporations and trade unions are seen as more likely to donate to different candidates, it is argued that a ban on corporate donations should be combined with a ban on trade union donations
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 No
Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
To ensure that donations do not come from other banned sources and to increase transparency, anonymous donations to political parties are sometimes banned outright or banned over a certain level (critics argue that provisions for anonymous donations protects the right to privacy of donors)
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 No data
Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
To ensure that donations do not come from other banned sources and to increase transparency, anonymous donations to candidates are sometimes banned outright or banned over a certain level (critics argue that provisions for anonymous donations protects the right to privacy of donors)
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 No
Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or candidates (excluding regulated public funding)?
To stop abuse of state (administrative) resources, some countries ban the giving of state resources to political parties or candidates, or banning political parties/candidates from receiving such funds
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 No data
Is there a ban on any other form of donation?
Some countries ban contributions from actors others than those included in the above questions – any such other bans are covered by this question.
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 No
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)?
To reduce the influence of wealthy benefactors over party politics, some countries limit the maximum size of donations. This can also help to reduce the risk of donors trying to avoid campaign contribution limits by making large donations well ahead of elections.
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 No
If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific), what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a donor can provide to a political party (for example per year), this question covers that amount
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 Not applicable
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election?
To reduce the influence of wealthy benefactors particularly in relation to election campaigns, some countries put specific limits on the maximum size of donations in relation to election campaigns.
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 No
If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election, what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a donor can provide to a political party in relation to an election, this question covers that amount
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 Not applicable
Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
To reduce the influence of wealthy benefactors in relation to the campaigns by candidates, some countries put specific limits on the maximum size of donations in relation to election campaigns.
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 No
If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a donor can provide to a candidate in an election, this question covers that amount
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 Not applicable

Public funding

Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
A key question in many countries is whether monetary assistance is provided from the State to political parties (public funding). It is argued that such support can help smaller parties make their voice heard, strengthen the capacity of political parties and to level the electoral playing field
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 No
If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what are the eligibility criteria?
If public funding is provided, a key question becomes which political parties that should be entitled to receive such funds
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 Not applicable
If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what is the allocation calculation?
In each country where public funding is provided, it must be determined how the funds is distributed between the political parties that are eligible for support
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 Not applicable
If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, are there provisions for how it should be used (“ear marking”)?
In some countries there are formal rules determining that the public funding provided must be used for certain purposes (“earmarking”)
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 Not applicable
Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
A form of indirect state assistance is to provide free or subsidised access to eligible political parties to (often state controlled) media. This is normally intended to help level the playing and allowing eligible political parties to make their message heard.
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 No
If there are provisions for political parties’ free or subsidized access to media, what criteria determine access allocation?
In countries where free or subsidised access to media is provided to political parties, this question covers how this access is distributed between the eligible parties
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 Not applicable
Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
A form of indirect state assistance is to provide free or subsidised access to eligible candidates to (often state controlled) media. This is normally intended to help level the playing and allowing eligible candidates to make their message heard.
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 No
Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
Apart from the provision of free or subsidised access to media, some countries provide other forms of indirect state funding, such as tax benefits for political parties, candidates or donors. This question covers all such other forms of indirect public funding.
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 No
Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?
Some countries reduce the funding provided to political parties if they do not meet certain criteria regarding gender equality among their candidates, or provide additional state funding to political parties that meet such criteria.
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 Not applicable
Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
Some countries use other types of financial measures to encourage gender equality within political parties. This can include earmarking of public funding to women’s wings or for gender-related activities, or to reduce the nomination deposit for women candidates
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 No data

Regulations of spending

Is there a ban on vote buying?
One type of campaign spending banned in many countries is the buying (and selling of votes), in other words to offer or provide financial or material incentives for voters to vote in a certain way or to abstain from voting.
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 Yes
Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate?
To reduce abuse of state (administrative) resources, some countries ban the use of public resources in favour of or against a particular political party or candidate (excluding regulated public funding). This can include an overall ban, but it can also include specific bans on bias in state controlled media; public officials campaigning while on duty or the use of government vehicles in election campaigns
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 No data
Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
To limit the advantage of political parties with more access to money, and sometimes to reduce overall spending on political party activities and election campaigns, some countries limit the amount that political parties are allowed to spend
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 No
If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a political party can spend, this question covers that amount
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 Not applicable
Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
To limit the advantage of candidates with more access to money, and sometimes to reduce overall spending on election campaigns, some countries limit the amount that candidates are allowed to spend
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 Yes
If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend what is the limit for spending?
If there is a limit on the amount that a candidates can spend, this question covers that amount
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 200,000 ringgit [I$ 105,000] (election to the Dewan Rakyat); 100,000 ringgit [I$ 53,000] (election to Legislative Assembly)

Reporting, oversight and sanctions

Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
To ensure transparency in political party finance, some countries require that political parties submit regular financial reports (such as quarterly or annually), whether or not an election has taken place during this period.
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 No
Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns?
To ensure transparency in campaign finance, some countries require that political parties submit special financial reports in relation to election campaigns
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 No
Do candidates have to report on their campaign finances?
To ensure transparency in campaign finance, some countries require that candidates submit special financial reports in relation to election campaigns
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 Yes
Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
Even if political parties and/or candidates have to submit financial reports, full transparency is not achieved unless these reports (or the information therein) is made available to the public
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 No
Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
Some argue that in the interest of transparency the identity or all those making donations must be revealed in financial transports, whereas see this as an invasion of privacy. In some cases a compromise is reached by demanding that the identity of donors is revealed if the donations exceed a certain value
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 Yes
What institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
The question deals with the institution(s) that to which political parties and/or candidates have to submit financial reports, either regular reports or in relation to election campaigns.
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 EMB
Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
Regulations are unlikely to be respected unless some institution(s) has the responsibility to oversee them. Having a mandate to receive financial reports does not necessarily mean that the institution is also required to review these reports, nor to investigate other breaches. This question covers what institution(s) has a responsibility to monitor political finance and to examine potential abuses
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 No
What other institutions have a formal role in political finance oversight?
Apart from receiving reports and investigating breaches, there may be other institutions having formal roles in political finance oversight. This may for example include administering the provision of public funding, applying sanctions or hearing appeals.
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 None
What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
To ensure compliance, political finance regulations must be accompanied with sanctions against breaches. This question covers the different sanctions that are applicable for violations such as failing to submit accurate financial reports, receiving funds from prohibited sources, exceeding spending limits, abusing state resources or buying votes.
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 Fines
 Prison

Electoral System Design

Electoral System Family
Electoral systems are divided into three broad families: plurality/majority systems, proportional systems (PR), and mixed systems. However, some electoral systems do not fit into any particular family. These are SNTV, LV, and BC.
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 Plurality/Majority
Electoral System for National Legislature
Essentially, there are 12 main electoral systems, the majority of which fall into three broad families (see Electoral System Family). This data shows electoral system for national legislature.
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 FPTP
Number of tiers
Electoral tiers are layers (or levels) in which votes are translated into seats. In mixed systems, for example, there are usually two tiers, one for plurality-majority system and another for the proportional system. It is also possible for an electoral system to have two tiers without being mixed in nature. For example, there are two-tier proportional systems that have both national and regional lists.
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 1
Legislative size (directly elected)
Total number of directly elected representatives
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222
Legislative size (Voting members)
Total number of voting members in the legislature
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222
Electoral system for the president
This data shows electoral system for presidential elections.
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 Not applicable

Electoral Management Design

Model of electoral management
 Independent
Electoral management body Name of EMB
 Electoral Commission
Number of EMB members
7
Term of office
Until the age of 65
EMB members selected by
Entity/-ies responsible for selecting the electoral management body
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 Monarch in consultation of the Conference of Rulers
Chair appointed/elected by
 Monarch in consultation of the Conference of Rulers
Party or expert based membership
 Expert

Direct Democracy

General

Legal provisions for mandatory referendums
Legal provisions for a vote of the electorate which is required under circumstances defined in the constitution or in legislation. Also known as an obligatory referendum.
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 No
Legal provisions for optional referendums
Optional referendum is a vote of the electorate which is not required by the constitution or by law.
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 No
Legal provisions for citizens' initiatives
A citizen's initiative is a direct democracy procedure that allows citizens to initiate a vote of the electorate on a proposal outlined by those citizens. The proposal may be for a new law, for a constitutional amendment, or to repeal or amend an existing law.
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 No
Legal provisions for agenda initiatives
Agenda initiative is a direct democracy procedure which enables citizens to submit a proposal which must be considered by the legislature but is not necessarily put to a vote of the electorate.
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 No
Legal provisions for recall
Recall is a direct democracy procedure that allows a specified number of citizens and/or an appropriate authority to demand a vote of the electorate on whether an elected holder of public office should be removed from that office before the end of her/his term.
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 No
Legal provisions at the regional level
 No
Legal provisions at the local level
 No
Legal basis for direct democracy at the national level
Legal documents that provide for Direct Democracy mechanisms at national level.
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No data for this field
Legal basis for administrative requirements at the national level
Legal documents that provide for administrative requirements of Direct Democracy mechanisms at national level.
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No data for this field
Who administers direct democracy mechanisms at the national level? No data for this field
First referendum/initiative held
 1957
Has there been a national referendum since 1980?
 No

Referendum

No data found

Initiative

No data found

Recall

No data found

Signature collection

No data found

Electoral Justice

Challenges to election results

Legislative

First instance body dealing with electoral disputes
First instance body or bodies to hear complaints, appeals and disputes about the results of legislative elections
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 Court of general jurisdiction (including Supreme Court)
Who may file a complaint?
Which actor(s) may file a complaint regarding the results of legislative elections?
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 Eligible Voter
 Registered Voter
 Candidate/ Party Representative
 Any person alleging himself to have been a candidate at such election.
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of a complaint?
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 Yes, deposit
Filing fee/deposit amout (in local currency)
 10000 MYR
Maximum complaint time since occurrence or discovery
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of occurrence or discovery of the infraction
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 28 days
Maximum complaint time since announcement of election results
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of announcement of election results?
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 21 days
Requirement to hold a hearing
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
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 Yes
Requirement to issue reasoned decision
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
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 Yes
Possibility to appeal
Is it possible to appeal the decision of the FIRST INSTANCE body?
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 Yes
What remedies are available in the first instance?
What remedies are available in the first instance body?
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 Annulment of results / Cancellation of elections
 Correction of the results
Last instance body dealing with electoral disputes
Last instance body to hear appeals against the decisions of lower instances about the results of legislative elections
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 Court of general jurisdiction (including Supreme Court)
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit in the last instance?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of an appeal in the last instance body?
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 Yes, filing fee
Filing/deposit fee amount (local currency) in the last instance
 See comment
Requirement to hold a hearing in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
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 Yes
Requirement to issue reasoned decision in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
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 Yes
What remedies are available in the last instance?
What remedies are available to the last instance dispute resolution body?
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 Annulment of results / Cancellation of elections
Number of levels of adjudication
Number of levels of adjudication in the entire electoral dispute resolution system of a country dealing with disputes related to legislative elections.
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 2
Maximum adjudication time for the full EDR process (days)
Maximum adjudication time for the full process from when the complaint about the results of legislative elections is filed at the first instance body until a decision is reached at the last instance body.
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 379 days

Presidential

First instance body dealing with electoral disputes
First instance body or bodies to hear complaints, appeals and disputes about the results of presidential elections
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 Head of state is not elected in popular elections
Who may file a complaint?
Which actor(s) may file a complaint regarding the results of presidential elections?
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 Not applicable
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of a complaint?
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 Not applicable
Filing fee/deposit amout (in local currency)
 Not applicable
Maximum complaint time since occurrence or discovery
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of occurrence or discovery of the infraction?
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 Not applicable
Maximum complaint time since announcement of election results
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of announcement of results of presidential elections?
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 Not applicable
Requirement to hold a hearing
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
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 Not applicable
Requirement to issue reasoned decision
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
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 Not applicable
Possibility to appeal
Is it possible to appeal the decision of the FIRST INSTANCE body?
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 Not applicable
What remedies are available in the first instance?
What remedies are available in the first instance body?
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 Not applicable
Last instance body dealing with electoral disputes
Last instance body to hear appeals against the decisions of lower instances about the results of presidential elections.
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 Head of state is not elected in popular elections
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit in the last instance?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of an appeal in the last instance body?
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 Not applicable
Filing/deposit fee amount (local currency) in the last instance
 Not applicable
Requirement to hold a hearing in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
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 Not applicable
Requirement to issue reasoned decision in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
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 Not applicable
What remedies are available in the last instance?
What remedies are available to the last instance dispute resolution body?
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 Not applicable
Number of levels of adjudication
Number of levels of adjudication in the entire electoral dispute resolution system of a country dealing with disputes related to presidential elections.
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 Not applicable
Maximum adjudication time for the full EDR process (days)
Maximum adjudication time for the full process from when the complaint about the results of presidential elections is filed at the first instance body until a decision is reached at the last instance body.
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 Not applicable

Challenges related to political party and candidate nomination and registration

Legislative

First instance body dealing with electoral disputes
First instance body or bodies to hear complaints, appeals and disputes related to political party or candidate registration for legislative elections.
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 Court of general jurisdiction (including Supreme Court)
Who may file a complaint?
Which actor(s) may file a complaint regarding the candidate and/or party registration for legislative elections?
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 Eligible Voter
 Registered Voter
 Candidate/ Party Representative
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of a complaint?
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 Yes, deposit
Filing fee/deposit amout (in local currency)
 10000 MYR
Maximum complaint time since occurrence or discovery
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of occurrence or discovery of the infraction?
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 Not specified
Maximum complaint time since announcement of election results
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of announcement of election results? (In some countries the disputes related to candidate registration can be dealt with after the election.)
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 21 days
Requirement to hold a hearing
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
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 Yes
Requirement to issue reasoned decision
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
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 Yes
Possibility to appeal
Is it possible to appeal the decision of the FIRST INSTANCE body?
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 Yes
What remedies are available in the first instance?
What remedies are available in the first instance body?
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 Cancellation of election
 Reversal or upholding of the challenged decision
Last instance body dealing with electoral disputes
Last instance body to hear appeals against the decisions of lower instances on disputes related to political party or candidate registration for legislative elections.
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 Court of general jurisdiction (including Supreme Court)
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit in the last instance?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of an appeal in the last instance body?
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 Yes, filing fee
Filing/deposit fee amount (local currency) in the last instance
 See comment
Requirement to hold a hearing in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
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 Yes
Requirement to issue reasoned decision in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
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 Yes
What remedies are available in the last instance?
What remedies are available to the last instance dispute resolution body?
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 Cancellation of election
 Reversal or upholding of the challenged decision
Number of levels of adjudication
Number of levels of adjudication in the entire electoral dispute resolution system of a country dealing with disputes related to political party or candidate registration for legislative elections.
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 2
Maximum adjudication time for the full EDR process (days)
Maximum adjudication time for the full process from when the complaint related to political party or candidate registration for legislative elections is filed at the first instance body until a decision is reached at the last instance body.
View all countries' data for this field
 379 days

Presidential

First instance body dealing with electoral disputes
First instance body or bodies to hear complaints, appeals and disputes related to political party or candidate nomination and registration for presidential elections.
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 Head of state is not elected in popular elections
Who may file a complaint?
Which actor(s) may file a complaint regarding the candidate or political party registration/nomination for presidential elections?
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 Not applicable
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of a complaint?
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 Not applicable
Filing fee/deposit amout (in local currency)
 Not applicable
Maximum complaint time since occurrence or discovery
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of occurrence or discovery of the infraction?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Maximum complaint time since announcement of election results
What is the maximum time allotment to file a complaint with the FIRST INSTANCE body from time of announcement of election results? (In some countries the disputes related to candidate registration can be dealt with after the election in a form of a general election petition.)
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 Not applicable
Requirement to hold a hearing
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Requirement to issue reasoned decision
Is the FIRST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Possibility to appeal
Is it possible to appeal the decision of the FIRST INSTANCE body?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
What remedies are available in the first instance?
What remedies are available in the first instance body?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Last instance body dealing with electoral disputes
Last instance body to hear appeals against the decisions of lower instances on disputes related to political party or candidate nomination and registration for presidential elections.
View all countries' data for this field
 Head of state is not elected in popular elections
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit in the last instance?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of an appeal in the last instance body?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Filing/deposit fee amount (local currency) in the last instance
 Not applicable
Requirement to hold a hearing in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Requirement to issue reasoned decision in the last instance
Is the LAST INSTANCE dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
What remedies are available in the last instance?
What remedies are available to the last instance dispute resolution body?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Number of levels of adjudication
Number of levels of adjudication in the entire electoral dispute resolution system of a country dealing with disputes related to political party or candidate nomination and registration for presidential elections.
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 Not applicable
Maximum adjudication time for the full EDR process (days)
Maximum adjudication time for the full process from when the complaint related to political party or candidate nomination and registration for presidential elections is filed at the first instance body until a decision is reached at the last instance body.
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable

Challenges related to campaign financing

Legislative

What institution(s) has the power to impose non-criminal sanctions for campaign finance infractions?
Please note that the term ‘sanctions’ in this part of the database refers to non-criminal sanctions, i.e. penalties imposed by the authorized body after civil or administrative proceedings (in some jurisdictions known as “administrative” penalties) and not resulting from prosecution and sentencing under criminal law. For criminal sanctions, please refer to Part IV of this database.
View all countries' data for this field
 Campaign finance infractions entail only criminal sanctions or penalties (please refer to section ELECTION-RELATED CRIMINAL OFFENCES).
What types of sanctions can be imposed for campaign finance infractions?
 Not applicable
Can the imposed sanctions be appealed?
 Not applicable
If appeal is possible, what is the competent body to hear the appeal?
 Not applicable
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit?
 Not applicable
Filing fee/deposit amount (in local currency)
 Not applicable
What is the maximum time to submit an appeal since imposition of sanctions?
 Not applicable
Requirement to hold a hearing
Is the dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Requirement to issue reasoned decision
Is the dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Possibility to further appeal
This is an appeal that can be done on the decision of the first instance body.
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
What remedies are available?
What remedies are available for the body which hears the appeal?
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 Not applicable

Presidential

What institution(s) has the power to impose non-criminal sanctions for campaign finance infractions?
Please note that the term ‘sanctions’ in this part of the Survey refers to non-criminal sanctions, i.e. penalties imposed by the authorised body after civil or administrative proceedings (in some jurisdictions known as “administrative” penalties) and not resulting from prosecution and sentencing under criminal law. For criminal sanctions, please refer to Part IV of this Survey.
View all countries' data for this field
 Head of state is not elected in popular elections
What types of sanctions can be imposed for campaign finance infractions?
 Not applicable
Can the imposed sanctions be appealed?
 Not applicable
If appeal is possible, what is the competent body to hear the appeal?
 Not applicable
Is there a legally mandated filing fee and/or deposit?
Is there any legal requirement to pay any fees or deposits as a condition for the submission of a complaint?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Filing fee/deposit amount (in local currency)
 Not applicable
What is the maximum time to submit an appeal since imposition of sanctions?
 Not applicable
Requirement to hold a hearing
Is the dispute resolution body required to hold a hearing?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Requirement to issue reasoned decision
Is the dispute resolution body required to issue reasoned decision?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
Possibility to further appeal
This is an appeal that can be submitted on the decision of the first instance body.
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable
What remedies are available in the first instance?
What remedies are available for the body deal with the appeals?
View all countries' data for this field
 Not applicable

Election-related criminal offences

Does the law criminalize any election-related offenses?
 Yes
What type of law provides for election-related criminal offences?
 Specific electoral law
Which types of election-related offences are punishable under law?
 Electoral fraud
 Incentive driven voter coercion
 Threat driven voter coercion
 Obstructing the electoral process
 Offences related to voter registration
 Unlawful conduct of campaign financing
What penalties are envisioned for offences related to electoral fraud?
 Both fine and imprisonment
 Not be able to vote or be elected for 5 years from conviction
What penalties are envisioned for offences related to incentive driven voter coercion?
 Both fine and imprisonment
 Not be able to vote or be elected for 5 years from conviction
What penalties are envisioned for offences related to threat driven voter coercion?
 Both fine and imprisonment
 Not be able to vote or be elected for 5 years from conviction
What penalties are envisioned for offences related to obstructing the electoral process?
 Both fine and imprisonment
 Not be able to vote or be elected for 5 years from conviction
What penalties are envisioned for offences related to voter registration?
 Both fine and imprisonment
 Not be able to vote or be elected for 5 years from conviction
What penalties are envisioned for offences related to unlawful conduct of campaign financing?
 Both fine and imprisonment
 Not be able to vote or be elected for 5 years from conviction
Who carries out investigation for election-related criminal offenses?
 Police
Who prosecutes election-related criminal offences?
 Public prosecutor

Voting from Abroad

Election type
Type of an election for which voting from abroad is allowed.
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 Legislative
(2003)
 Sub-national
(2003)
Voting method
Ways of voting from abroad, i.e. existing procedures for casting an external vote.
View all countries' data for this field
 Postal
(2003)
First year
The year that VFA was first implemented
View all countries' data for this field
 No data
(2003)
Comments
 Research was conducted in 2012
(2003)

‡ Taiwan is the name according to official EU lists. Read more

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