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Political Finance data for Iceland

This page displays Political Finance data for Iceland about Bans and limits on private income, Public funding, Regulations of spending and Reporting, oversight and sanctions.

Bans and limits on private income

1. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to political parties?
An important issue in many countries is to limit influence over national politics to forces within the country. Foreign interests such as governments, corporations, organisations and/or individuals may therefore be banned from making donations to political parties
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from any of the following; foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from XX-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about foreign sources, code “NO”.
Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties.
Note that if you find information that foreign funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.
If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: ... -foreign nationals who do not have the right to vote in Iceland, undertakings or other entities which are registered in other countries." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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2. Is there a ban on donations from foreign interests to candidates?
An important issue in many countries is to limit influence over national politics to forces within the country. Foreign interests such as governments, corporations, organisations and/or individuals may therefore be banned from making donations to political parties
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from any of the following; foreign citizens, foreign companies, foreign governments or foreign organisations, code “YES” for parties. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this only includes national sources (such as “citizens” or “natural and judicial persons from XX-land”). By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about foreign sources, code “NO”.
Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections.
Note that if you find information that foreign funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidate s, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.
If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: ... -foreign nationals who do not have the right to vote in Iceland, undertakings or other entities which are registered in other countries." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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3. Is there a ban on corporate donations to political parties?
It is often discussed if corporations should be allowed to make donations to political parties, those in favour claim it is a matter of freedom of speech, those against argue that the influence of corporate interests over politics must be controlled.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include any of the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.
Note that a regulation of this issue for political parties may be found in a political party law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on political parties.
Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.
If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
No bans on corporate donations (except foreign) in law.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "The only limits are that, according to law No.62/1978, foreign individuals, institutions and embassies are not allowed to support political parties in Iceland, to support any publication published by them or to give presents or goods to Icelandic parties." (Kristján Guy Burgess & Ágúst Pór Árnason, Country Reports on Political Corruption and Party Financing, Iceland.)
P 6, "28. A number of restrictions apply to the sources of private funding. In particular, pursuant to Article 6 of Law No. 162/2006, political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: - anonymous donors; - undertakings which are majority owned by or under the control of the State or municipalities; - public entities other than the State Treasury or municipalities, such as undertakings which are jointly owned by the State and municipalities; - foreign nationals who do not have the right to vote in Iceland, undertakings or other entities which are registered in other countries." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
4. Is there a ban on corporate donations to candidates?
It is often discussed if corporations should be allowed to make donations to candidates, those in favour claim it is a matter of freedom of speech, those against argue that the influence of corporate interests over politics must be controlled.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies and/or business enterprises, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above or “judicial persons”. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.
Note that a regulation of this issue for candidates (if it is regulated) will almost always be found in the electoral law. In some countries, this issue is regulated in the Constitution, normally in a section specifically on elections.
Note that if you find information that corporate funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.
If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "28. A number of restrictions apply to the sources of private funding. In particular, pursuant to Article 6 of Law No. 162/2006, political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: - anonymous donors; - undertakings which are majority owned by or under the control of the State or municipalities; - public entities other than the State Treasury or municipalities, such as undertakings which are jointly owned by the State and municipalities; - foreign nationals who do not have the right to vote in Iceland, undertakings or other entities which are registered in other countries." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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5. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts or partial government ownership to political parties?
A ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to political parties is often intended to stop indirect abuse of state resources, whereas banning contributions from companies with government contracts often seek to reduce the risk for quid-pro-quo donations.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts or that are partly owned or controlled by the government, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”. If the regulations only ban donations from state-owned or public corporations etc, also code “NO”.
Note that if you find information that funding from companies with government contracts or partial government ownership is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.
Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in question 11.
If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Ban applies to donations from entities that are in majority owned or "under the control" of the State.
Type
 Written
Quote
"political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: ... -undertakings which are majority owned by or under the control of the State of municipalities;" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
6. Is there a ban on donations from corporations with government contracts or partial government ownership to candidates?
A ban on donations from corporations with partial government ownership to candidates is often intended to stop indirect abuse of state resources, whereas banning contributions from companies with government contracts often seek to reduce the risk for quid-pro-quo donations.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from corporations, companies or business enterprises that have public/government contracts, or that are partly owned or controlled by the government, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.
Note that if you find information that funding from companies with government contracts or partial government ownership is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.
Note that this question does not relate to donations from direct government sources such as ministries, government agencies or public companies. This is addressed in question 11.
If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: ... -undertakings which are majority owned by or under the control of the State of municipalities;" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
7. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to political parties?
In some countries where corporations and trade unions are seen as more likely to donate to different political parties, it is argued that a ban on corporate donations should be combined with a ban on trade union donations
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to political parties.
Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for political parties, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “political parties are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for political parties include...” it is not exhaustive.
If you find information about allowed or banned sources for political parties and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.
Note that if you find information that trade union funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the following question.
If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
Page 6, Article 28: "28. A number of restrictions apply to the sources of private funding. In particular, pursuant to Article 6" of Law No. 162/2006, political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: - anonymous donors; - undertakings which are majority owned by or under the control of the State or municipalities; - public entities other than the State Treasury or municipalities, such as undertakings which are jointly owned by the State and municipalities; - foreign nationals who do not have the right to vote in Iceland, undertakings or other entities which are registered in other countries." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
P 6, "The only limits are that, according to law No.62/1978, foreign individuals, institutions and embassies are not allowed to support political parties in Iceland, to support any publication published by them or to give presents or goods to Icelandic parties." (Kristján Guy Burgess & Ágúst Pór Árnason, Country Reports on Political Corruption and Party Financing, Iceland.)
Feedback
8. Is there a ban on donations from Trade Unions to candidates?
In some countries where corporations and trade unions are seen as more likely to donate to different candidates, it is argued that a ban on corporate donations should be combined with a ban on trade union donations
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from trade unions, workers’ organisations etc, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that such entities are banned from giving support, contributions or donations to candidates.

Also code “YES” if legislation includes an exhaustive list of allowed sources of income for candidates, and this does not include any of the above. By an “exhaustive list” is meant where it is stated something like “candidates are only allowed to receive income from the following sources”. If it says something like “allowed sources for candidates include...” it is not exhaustive.

If you find information about allowed or banned sources for candidates and there is no mention about the sources mentioned above, code “NO”.

Note that if you find information that from trade unions funding is banned from being used in election campaigns, but it is not explicitly stated or clear from the context that it relates specifically to political parties or candidates, code “NO” for both this and the preceding question.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written  Deduction
Quote
Page 6, Article 28: "28. A number of restrictions apply to the sources of private funding. In particular, pursuant to Article 6" of Law No. 162/2006, political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: - anonymous donors; - undertakings which are majority owned by or under the control of the State or municipalities; - public entities other than the State Treasury or municipalities, such as undertakings which are jointly owned by the State and municipalities; - foreign nationals who do not have the right to vote in Iceland, undertakings or other entities which are registered in other countries." [Trade unions are not among those banned] (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
9. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to political parties?
To ensure that donations do not come from other banned sources and to increase transparency, anonymous donations to political parties are sometimes banned outright or banned over a certain level (critics argue that provisions for anonymous donations protects the right to privacy of donors)
 Yes
 No, but specific limit
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If you find information that political parties are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that support, contributions or donations to political parties cannot be given anonymously.

Also code “YES” if it is regulated that political parties must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations).

Code “No, but specific limit” if there are no bans but a limit on the amount donated. Please indicate the actual limit in the public comments field.

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: -anonymous donors." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
10. Is there a ban on anonymous donations to candidates?
To ensure that donations do not come from other banned sources and to increase transparency, anonymous donations to candidates are sometimes banned outright or banned over a certain level (critics argue that provisions for anonymous donations protects the right to privacy of donors)
 Yes
 No, but specific limit
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If you find information that candidates are not allowed to receive donations from anonymous or unnamed sources, code “YES”. Also code “YES” if it is stated that support, contributions or donations to candidates cannot be given anonymously.

Also code “YES” if it is regulated that candidates must be able to provide names or to identify the source of all donations (a de facto ban on anonymous donations).

Code “No, but specific limit” if there are no bans but a limit on the amount donated. Please indicate the actual limit in the public comments field.

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of anonymous sources, if anonymous donations are explicitly allowed or if it is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: -anonymous donors." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
11. Is there a ban on state resources being given to or received by political parties or candidates (excluding regulated public funding)?
To stop abuse of state (administrative) resources, some countries ban the giving of state resources to political parties or candidates, or banning political parties/candidates from receiving such funds
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Code “YES” if there are regulations against the giving of state resources to a particular political party/parties or candidate(s), whether or not it is in relation to elections.

Code “YES” it is stated that any or all of the following are banned from making contributions to political parties and/or candidates; government agencies, public institutions, Ministries, local government institutions, public companies (fully state owned). Also code “YES” if there is a ban on political parties or candidates receiving such support. If a ban only relates to political parties or to candidates, code “YES” and give details in an external comment.

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question. Nor are provisions that public resources must not be used in favour of a particular party/candidate or that state agencies/staff/media must be neutral (see question 30)

Code “NO” if you find information about sources of funding and there is no mention of the use of state resources or if is clear that there are no limitations on sources of funds at all.

If you have not found any information and you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
The State Treasury and municipalities are excluded.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not permitted to accept donations from: -public entities other than the State Treasury or municipalities." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
12. Is there a ban on any other form of donation?
Some countries ban contributions from actors others than those included in the above questions – any such other bans are covered by this question.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
If you find information of a ban on any form of contributions or donations not covered by the preceding questions to either or both of political parties or candidates, code “YES”. This could for example be a ban on all forms of private donations or on donations from convicted felons. The ban could also be indirect – for example if only registered voters are allowed to contribute, then minors are as a consequence banned from making contributions. If you code “YES”, you must give details in an external comment.

If you find regulations about sources of income for political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "The only limits are that, according to law No.62/1978, foreign individuals, institutions and embassies are not allowed to support political parties in Iceland, to support any publication published by them or to give presents or goods to Icelandic parties." (Kristján Guy Burgess & Ágúst Pór Árnason, Country Reports on Political Corruption and Party Financing, Iceland.)
Feedback
13. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific)?
To reduce the influence of wealthy benefactors over party politics, some countries limit the maximum size of donations. This can also help to reduce the risk of donors trying to avoid campaign contribution limits by making large donations well ahead of elections.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (individuals, organisations etc) can donate/contribute to a political party for a certain time period, not specifically in relation to elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.
If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not allowed to receive more than 300,000 ISK (2,488 EUR) per year from any individual donor" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
14. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party over a time period (not election specific), what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a donor can provide to a political party (for example per year), this question covers that amount
 No data
 Not applicable
(Custom values also allowed)
Code
 Annual limit is ISK 400,000 [I$ 3,300]
If you code “NO” on question 13, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.
Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add what the time period the limit is for, and any other information.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.
Comment
Amount raised in September 2010.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 1, "Maximum donation from individuals and legal entities to political organisations and candidates is raised from ISK 300,000.00 to ISK 400,000.00" (Government of Iceland Prime Minister's Office (2010) Progress Report on RC-III Iceland, The Implementation of the Recommendations of GRECO on Iceland of party funding (theme II))
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not allowed to receive more than 300,000 ISK (2,488 EUR) per year from any individual donor" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
15. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election?
To reduce the influence of wealthy benefactors particularly in relation to election campaigns, some countries put specific limits on the maximum size of donations in relation to election campaigns.
 Yes
 No
 Regular limit applies
 No data
Code
 Regular limit applies
Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (individuals, organisations etc) can donate/contribute to a political party in relation to elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

Code “Regular limit applies” when Q13 is YES but there is no regulation for Q15.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “No data”.
Comment
Only limit on donations per year.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not allowed to receive more than 300,000 ISK (2,488 EUR) per year from any individual donor" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
16. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a political party in relation to an election, what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a donor can provide to a political party in relation to an election, this question covers that amount
 No data
 Not applicable
(Custom values also allowed)
Code
 Not applicable
If you code “NO” on question 15, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, per candidate or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.
Comment
NA
Type
 Not applicable
Feedback
17. Is there a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate?
To reduce the influence of wealthy benefactors in relation to the campaigns by candidates, some countries put specific limits on the maximum size of donations in relation to election campaigns.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an entity (individuals, organisations etc) can donate/contribute to a candidate in relation to elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not allowed to receive more than 300,000 ISK (2,488 EUR) per year from any individual donor" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
18. If there is a limit on the amount a donor can contribute to a candidate, what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a donor can provide to a candidate in an election, this question covers that amount
 No data
 Not applicable
(Custom values also allowed)
Code
 Limit is ISK 400,000 [I$ 3,300]
If you code “NO” on question 17, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the contribution limit to candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add information such as if the limit is per constituency, or per voter. If the limit is expressed as a calculation (for example 100 times the minimum wage), code that.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.
Comment
Per year.
Type
 Law  Written
Quote
P 6, "...political parties and electoral candidates are not allowed to receive more than 300,000 ISK (2,488 EUR) per year from any individual donor" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Art 7, "7. gr. Eftirfarandi breytingar verða á 8. gr. laganna: a. Í stað fjárhæðarinnar „300.000 kr.“ í 2. málsl. 1. mgr. kemur: 400.000 kr." (Lög um breytingu á lögum nr. 162/2006, um fjármál stjórnmálasamtaka og frambjóðenda og um upplýsingaskyldu þeirra (Law 119/2010))
P 1, "Maximum donation from individuals and legal entities to political organisations and candidates is raised from ISK 300,000.00 to ISK 400,000.00" (Government of Iceland Prime Minister's Office (2010) Progress Report on RC-III Iceland, The Implementation of the Recommendations of GRECO on Iceland of party funding (theme II))
Feedback

Public funding

19. Are there provisions for direct public funding to political parties?
A key question in many countries is whether monetary assistance is provided from the State to political parties (public funding). It is argued that such support can help smaller parties make their voice heard, strengthen the capacity of political parties and to level the electoral playing field
 Yes, regularly provided funding
 Yes, in relation to campaigns
 Yes, both regularly provided funding and in relation to campaigns
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes, regularly provided funding
Code “REGULARLY” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided regularly (normally annually or more often), not specifically related to election campaigns.

Code “IN RELATION TO CAMPAIGNS” if it is it regulated that political parties are entitled to provision of direct public funding [money] that is provided specifically related to election campaigns.

Code “BOTH” if both of these types of direct public funding are provided.

Code “NO” if a list of permitted sources of income of a political party does not include any mention of public funding and no information about public funding can be found. Also code “NO” if a law mentions that public funding “may” or “could” be provided, but then make an external comment explaining this.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
From the budget of both the State and municipalities.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 5, "Direct public funding is provided through (Chapter II, Law No. 162/2006): (i) annual contributions from the State Treasury (according to authorisation given by the Parliament to the Ministry of Finance in the State budget). This type of support consists of two different allocations: (a) financial grants divided between parties according to votes gained in the last general elections. Parties which obtained at least one seat in Parliament or received more than 2.5 % of votes in the last general elections can apply for such grants; and (b) parliamentary support for every party represented in parliament. An equal amount, called a “unit”, is to be paid for each Member of Parliament. One unit is also paid for each parliamentary group. In addition, an amount equalling twelve units is allocated to parliamentary groups of the political organisations that have no seats in the Government, dividing these units among them in proportion to the number of votes. ... (ii) annual contributions from municipalities: local authorities with more than 500 inhabitants are to support parties which have obtained at least one seat in the local council or at least 5% of the votes cast in the last municipal election. The overall amount of the funding to be provided is to be decided by the local authority itself at the time of adoption of the municipal budget and distributed on a proportional basis. Smaller communities are free to decide whether to provide financial support to parties, but if they do so, they are bound by the same aforementioned rules. In 2007, 32,750,000 ISK3 (271,635 EUR) was distributed proportionately to the parties with seats in Reykjavik’s City Council. In 2008, the contribution to political parties from the city of Reykjavík will amount to 33,600,000 ISK (278,685 EUR)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
20. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what are the eligibility criteria?
If public funding is provided, a key question becomes which political parties that should be entitled to receive such funds
 Representation in elected body
 Share of votes in previous election
 Share of votes in next election
 Share of seats in previous election
 Share of seats in next election
 Number of candidates
 Number of members
 Participation in election
 Registration as a political party
 No data
 Not applicable
(Multiple codes as well as custom values allowed)
Code
 Representation in elected body
 Share of votes in previous election
If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on question 20, code “ND”.

Give the basis used to establish eligibility for political parties to access direct funding (or “who has the right to receive”).

If the eligibility criteria is that a political party must have representation in an elected body, code “REPRESENTATION IN ELECTED BODY”.

If the eligibility is that a party must have won a certain share of votes in the preceding election, code ”SHARE OF VOTES IN PREVIOUS ELECTION” including the percentage that is required.

If the eligibility is that a party must win a certain share of votes in the next election, code ”SHARE OF VOTES IN NEXT ELECTION” including the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election).

If the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party holds or won in the preceding election, code SHARE OF SEATS IN PREVIOUS ELECTION” including the percentage that is required.

If the eligibility is based on a certain number of seats or “representation” that each party wins in the next election, code SHARE OF SEATS IN NEXT ELECTION” including the percentage that is required (this is sometimes used when public funding is provided after an election).

If eligibility is established by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election) code “NO. OF CANDIDATES”, noting the number of candidates needed. Also use this code if eligibility is based on a political party is required to present candidates in a certain number of districts etc.

If eligibility is established by the number of members of the party, code “NO. OF MEMBERS”, noting the number of members needed.

If another criteria is used, code “OTHER” (and give an external comment to specify.

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options.

If you cannot find information, or if it is stated that the eligibility criteria is decided by a particular institution, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in question 19 and the eligibility criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, the answer to this question should relate to the funding given in relation to campaign support, with information about for regular assistance noted in internal comments.
Comment
State support to parties with Parliamentary representation or which won at least 2.5% of votes in last election. Municipal support to parties with local council representation or which won at least 5% of vote in last election.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 5, "Direct public funding is provided through (Chapter II, Law No. 162/2006): (i) annual contributions from the State Treasury (according to authorisation given by the Parliament to the Ministry of Finance in the State budget). This type of support consists of two different allocations: (a) financial grants divided between parties according to votes gained in the last general elections. Parties which obtained at least one seat in Parliament or received more than 2.5 % of votes in the last general elections can apply for such grants; and (b) parliamentary support for every party represented in parliament. An equal amount, called a “unit”, is to be paid for each Member of Parliament. One unit is also paid for each parliamentary group. In addition, an amount equalling twelve units is allocated to parliamentary groups of the political organisations that have no seats in the Government, dividing these units among them in proportion to the number of votes. ... (ii) annual contributions from municipalities: local authorities with more than 500 inhabitants are to support parties which have obtained at least one seat in the local council or at least 5% of the votes cast in the last municipal election. The overall amount of the funding to be provided is to be decided by the local authority itself at the time of adoption of the municipal budget and distributed on a proportional basis. Smaller communities are free to decide whether to provide financial support to parties, but if they do so, they are bound by the same aforementioned rules. In 2007, 32,750,000 ISK3 (271,635 EUR) was distributed proportionately to the parties with seats in Reykjavik’s City Council. In 2008, the contribution to political parties from the city of Reykjavík will amount to 33,600,000 ISK (278,685 EUR)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
21. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, what is the allocation calculation?
In each country where public funding is provided, it must be determined how the funds is distributed between the political parties that are eligible for support
 Equal
 Proportional to votes received
 Flat rate by votes received
 Proportional to seats received
 Proportional to candidates fielded
 Share of expenses reimbursed
 Number of members
 No data
 Not applicable
(Multiple codes as well as custom values allowed)
Code
 Equal
 Proportional to votes received
If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on question 20, code “ND”.
This question refers to how the public funding is distributed between those that have a right to receive it.
Public funding can be provided equally to all eligible political parties; totally in proportion to something like seats or votes won; or (most commonly) a combination of the two.
If the regulation is that all political parties receive the same amount, enter “EQUAL”. Do the same if it is simply stated that the funds are allocated “equally”.
If it is stated that the funds are allocated proportionally, note the basis for such proportionality. If it for example is stated that the allocation is based on the number of seats or the “representation” of each party, enter “SEATS”.
If it stated that the funds is allocated by the number of votes received (in the preceding or forthcoming election), enter “VOTES”. If it is allocated by the number of members of the party, enter “MEMBERS”.
If it is allocated by the number of candidates presented by the party (in the preceding or forthcoming election) enter “CANDIDATES”.
If another criterion is used, enter “OTHER” (and give a internal comment).
If more than one criterion is used (for example if some of the proportional funds is distributed by one criteria and some by another, enter “COMBINATION” (and give an external comment).
If some of the funds are provided equally and some proportionally, also note the percentage of the funds that are allocated proportionally.
If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
In case the answer “BOTH” was given in question ##19 and the allocation criteria is different for the two types of direct public funding, the answer to this question should relate to the funding given in relation to campaign support, with information about for regular assistance noted in internal comments.
Comment
State funding is partly allocated equally and partly proportionally by votes gained. Municipal funding is proportional (unclear by what).
Type
 Written
Quote
P 5, "Direct public funding is provided through (Chapter II, Law No. 162/2006): (i) annual contributions from the State Treasury (according to authorisation given by the Parliament to the Ministry of Finance in the State budget). This type of support consists of two different allocations: (a) financial grants divided between parties according to votes gained in the last general elections. Parties which obtained at least one seat in Parliament or received more than 2.5 % of votes in the last general elections can apply for such grants; and (b) parliamentary support for every party represented in parliament. An equal amount, called a “unit”, is to be paid for each Member of Parliament. One unit is also paid for each parliamentary group. In addition, an amount equalling twelve units is allocated to parliamentary groups of the political organisations that have no seats in the Government, dividing these units among them in proportion to the number of votes. ... (ii) annual contributions from municipalities: local authorities with more than 500 inhabitants are to support parties which have obtained at least one seat in the local council or at least 5% of the votes cast in the last municipal election. The overall amount of the funding to be provided is to be decided by the local authority itself at the time of adoption of the municipal budget and distributed on a proportional basis. Smaller communities are free to decide whether to provide financial support to parties, but if they do so, they are bound by the same aforementioned rules. In 2007, 32,750,000 ISK3 (271,635 EUR) was distributed proportionately to the parties with seats in Reykjavik’s City Council. In 2008, the contribution to political parties from the city of Reykjavík will amount to 33,600,000 ISK (278,685 EUR)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
22. If there are provisions for direct public funding to political parties, are there provisions for how it should be used (“ear marking”)?
In some countries there are formal rules determining that the public funding provided must be used for certain purposes (“earmarking”)
 Campaign spending
 Ongoing party activities
 Intra-party institution
 No
 No data
 Not applicable
(Multiple codes as well as custom values allowed)
Code
 No
If you code “NO” on question 20, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on question 20, code “ND”.

If it is noted that direct public funding provided to political parties must only be used for certain purposes, code which.

If it is stated that the money must be used for election campaign purposes, code “CAMPAIGN SPENDING”.

If it is noted that the money must be used for ongoing party activities such as administration, public awareness campaigns, policy platform development, voter interaction or membership drives, code “ONGOING PARTY ACTIVITIES”.

If funds are given directly to or explicitly intended for the use of particular institutions within political parties, such as Youth or Women’s Wings or research or policy institutions within parties, code “INTRA-PARTY INSTITUTION”. Provide additional information in an external comment.

If some other form of earmarking is noted, or if it is noted that public funds must not be used for a certain purpose, code “OTHER” and give an external comment.

If funds are earmarked for several uses, code all the applicable options.
If there are no provisions for what direct public funding must be used, code “NO”.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

In case the answer “BOTH” was given in question 19 and the answer to this question is different for the two types of direct public funding, the answer to this question should relate to the funding given in relation to campaign support, with information about for regular assistance noted in internal comments.
Comment
Type
 Written  Deduction
Quote
Feedback
23. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for political parties?
A form of indirect state assistance is to provide free or subsidised access to eligible political parties to (often state controlled) media. This is normally intended to help level the playing and allowing eligible political parties to make their message heard.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Code “YES” if political parties are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat political parties without bias would not be relevant for this question.

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 5, "Some form of indirect funding of election campaigns is provided through free broadcasting time on the State-owned television channel at the time of election campaigns." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
24. If there are provisions for political parties’ free or subsidized access to media, what criteria determine access allocation?
In countries where free or subsidised access to media is provided to political parties, this question covers how this access is distributed between the eligible parties
 Equal
 Number of candidates
 Share of seats
 Share of votes in preceding election
 Other
 None
 No data
 Not applicable
(Multiple codes allowed)
Code
 Equal
If you code “NO” on question 23, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

If it says that access is provided equally to all, CODE “EQUAL”.

If the time/access is allocated depending on the number of candidates that each political party has nominated/presented, code “NUMBER OF CANDIDATES”.

If the time/access is allocated depending on the share or number of seats that each political party holds in an elected body, code “SHARE OF SEATS”.

If something else is used as the basis for allocation, code “OTHER”.

If more than one criterion is used, code all the applicable options.

If there are details about how the access should be divided between political parties, provide a brief explanation in an external comment.

If there are no details, code “ND”
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 5, "Some form of indirect funding of election campaigns is provided through free broadcasting time on the State-owned television channel at the time of election campaigns. There are no specific provisions on media space, but, according to the Law No. 53/2000 on Broadcasting, all radio and television stations are bound by the basic rules of democracy and freedom of expression. On this basis, parties are treated equally when allocating air time." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
25. Are there provisions for free or subsidized access to media for candidates?
A form of indirect state assistance is to provide free or subsidised access to eligible candidates to (often state controlled) media. This is normally intended to help level the playing and allowing eligible candidates to make their message heard.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
Code “YES” if candidates are entitled to free or subsidised access to public or private TV, radio, newspaper or other media, regardless of whether this is in relation to election campaigns or not. Note details in an external comment. A provision that media outlets should treat candidates without bias would not be relevant for this question.

Information about this issue is sometimes not listed together with general political party or campaign finance provisions; sometimes it is regulated in an electoral law (or similar) in paragraphs that relate to the role of media in elections.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party finance and media in elections but there is no information of such benefits.
If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Deduction
Quote
- No information found in sources -
Feedback
26. Are there provisions for any other form of indirect public funding?
Apart from the provision of free or subsidised access to media, some countries provide other forms of indirect state funding, such as tax benefits for political parties, candidates or donors. This question covers all such other forms of indirect public funding.
 No
 Tax relief
 Space for campaign materials
 Premises for campaign meetings
 Free or subsidised transport
 Free or subsidised postage cost
 No data
(Multiple codes as well as custom values allowed)
Code
 Tax relief
If you find information of any form of support, assistance or benefit from the state to either or both of political parties or of candidates not covered by the preceding questions, code “YES”.

This could for example be;
• Political parties/candidates being exempt from tax or custom duties, or receiving other tax benefits
• Donors to political parties/candidates receiving tax benefits from donations
• Provision of free or subsidized transport, postage, office space, areas for events, poster.

If you code “YES”, you must give details in an external comment.

If you find regulations about state assistance to political parties or candidates but there is nothing not covered by preceding questions, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other forms of donations, code “ND”.
Comment
Tax relief for donors.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 6, "Legal persons donating to a political party qualify for a tax-exemption of up to 0.5% of their income (Article 31(2), Law No. 90/2003 on Income Tax)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
27. Is the provision of direct public funding to political parties related to gender equality among candidates?
Some countries reduce the funding provided to political parties if they do not meet certain criteria regarding gender equality among their candidates, or provide additional state funding to political parties that meet such criteria.
 Yes
 No
 No data
 Not applicable
Code
 No
If you code “NO” on question 19, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Code “YES” if there are provisions that political parties will receive additional public funding if they meet criteria relating to gender equality among their candidates, or if political parties risk losing all or some of their public funding if they do not reach such criteria. Explain the criteria briefly, noting both the sanction/reward and the definition of gender equality to be used.

Examples include reduced funding if gender inequality among candidates/ extra funding added for parties with gender equality among candidates/earmarking of funds for gender equality activities. A search in each law for “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful.

Code “NO” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that a connection between direct public funding and the gender equality is in use.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written  Deduction
Quote
Feedback
28. Are there provisions for other financial advantages to encourage gender equality in political parties?
Some countries use other types of financial measures to encourage gender equality within political parties. This can include earmarking of public funding to women’s wings or for gender-related activities, or to reduce the nomination deposit for women candidates
 Yes, funding to women's wings
 Yes, increased media access
 Yes, tax benefits
 Yes, reduced nomination fee
 Yes, funds earmarked for gender activities
 Yes, other
 No
 No data
(Multiple codes allowed)
Code
 No
This question relates to regulations that are explicitly aimed at increasing gender equality in the activities or organisation of political parties.

If there is provision that public funding (direct or indirect) is to be given especially to the Women’s Wing (or similar) of a political party, code “FUNDING OF WOMEN’S WING”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from increased access to media, code “INCREASED MEDIA ACCESS”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from tax benefits, or that donors to women candidates or political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality receive tax benefits, code “TAX BENEFITS.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from reduced candidate nomination fees, code “REDUCED NOMINATION FEES”.

If it is stated that women candidates or that political parties that fulfil certain criteria regarding gender equality benefit from other forms of regulation, code “OTHER”.

Give additional information in an external comment (you must do so if you have coded “other”).

A search in each law for the terms “women”, “gender” and “sex” may be useful.

If more than one alternative apply, code all of them.

Code “NO” if you find no information in legislation or other sources that financial benefits to increase gender equality is in use.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written  Deduction
Quote
Feedback

Regulations of spending

29. Is there a ban on vote buying?
One type of campaign spending banned in many countries is the buying (and selling of votes), in other words to offer or provide financial or material incentives for voters to vote in a certain way or to abstain from voting.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Code “YES” if there is a ban on bribing or influencing voters to vote in a certain manner.

Note that this information is not normally found among regular political party or campaign finance provisions. Often bans of this type are found in a list of election offences or similar, which tends to be placed towards the end of election laws.

Code “NO” if no such provisions exist. Also code “NO” if there is a ban on political parties or candidates to incur certain expenses such as charitable spending in relation to elections, but there is no necessary connection made between such spending and exerting influence on how people vote.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about other vote buying (or election offences), code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Law
Quote
Art 117, ["Banned election propaganda and election sabotage" include:] "To offer anyone money or advantages in order to have an effect on whether they cast a vote or for whom they cast a vote, to deprive a person or to threaten a person with the deprivation of his or her job or advantages for the same purpose, to promise money or advantages to a person if an election turns out this way or that way, to make it difficult for others to go to a polling session or to a pre-election polling station, as well as to apply coercive measures in connection with elections." (Act on Parlimentary Elections to the Althing, No. 24/2000, 2000)
Feedback
30. Are there bans on state resources being used in favour or against a political party or candidate?
To reduce abuse of state (administrative) resources, some countries ban the use of public resources in favour of or against a particular political party or candidate (excluding regulated public funding). This can include an overall ban, but it can also include specific bans on bias in state controlled media; public officials campaigning while on duty or the use of government vehicles in election campaigns
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
This question is different from question 11 in that this question relates not to resources being given to political parties or candidates, but to resources being used directly or indirectly in favour of a political party or candidate.

Code “YES” if there are any regulations against the use of state resources to favour a particular political party or candidate, whether or not it is in relation to elections or who is using these resources. This could for example include;
• A general ban on using state resources in favour of a political party or candidate
• A ban on government vehicles being used in election campaigns
• A ban on campaigning taking place at government facilities (unless same access given to all contestants)
• A ban on civil servants or state employees to campaign while on duty/during office hours
• A ban on public media giving biased coverage in relation to political parties or elections, or a requirement for public media to be neutral in its reporting (regulations of private media are not relevant in this regard).

(Give details in an external comment).

Note that this type of regulation may not be in the same place as information about political party or campaign finance. There may for example be a separate section on this issue, or information may be included among a list of election offences (such a list is often find towards the end of electoral laws).

The provision of regulated direct or indirect public funding to all eligible political party is not relevant for this question.
Code “NO” if you have access to regulations about elections (and if possible political party activities) and there is no mention of the use of state resources.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the use of state resources, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
P 8, "d) Provisions Against the Influencing of Elections Through Abuse of Power and Government Resources, No such provisions in place." (Kristján Guy Burgess & Ágúst Pór Árnason, Country Reports on Political Corruption and Party Financing, Iceland.)
Feedback
31. Are there limits on the amount a political party can spend?
To limit the advantage of political parties with more access to money, and sometimes to reduce overall spending on political party activities and election campaigns, some countries limit the amount that political parties are allowed to spend
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 No
Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that political parties can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Give details in an external comment.

Code “NO” if you find information about political party and campaign finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of political party finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.
Comment
A voluntary limit was agreed to in 2007 regarding advertising.
Type
 Written
Quote
32. "No restrictions on the total amount of expenditure which a political party may incur are imposed. However, for the last parliamentary elections held on 12 May 2007, political parties reached a consensus on a budgetary limit of 28,000,000 ISK (232,240 EUR) for expenses linked to advertising during the electoral campaign." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
32. If there are limits on the amount a political party can spend, what is the limit?
If there is a limit on the amount that a political party can spend, this question covers that amount
 No data
 Not applicable
(Custom values also allowed)
Code
 Not applicable
If you code “NO” on question 31, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the spending limit for political parties (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.
Comment
Type
 Not applicable
Feedback
33. Are there limits on the amount a candidate can spend?
To limit the advantage of candidates with more access to money, and sometimes to reduce overall spending on election campaigns, some countries limit the amount that candidates are allowed to spend
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Code “YES” if there are any regulations limiting the amounts that an election candidate can spend, either for a certain time period or in relation to an election. Code “YES” even if such limits only applies to certain candidates (give details in an external comment).

Code “NO” if you find information about candidate finance but there is no information of such limits, or if there seem to be no regulations of candidate finance at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about such limits, code “ND”.
Comment
Limit introduced for Presidential candidates in 2010. General limit only relates to the internal selection process (primaries).
Type
 Written
Quote
P 7, "The costs for individual candidates running for internal party selection processes (primaries) must not exceed 1,000,000 ISK (8,295 EUR) in addition to a supplement which is calculated in inverse proportion to the number of inhabitants entitled to vote in the relevant electoral district (the calculation of the supplement increases as the number of voters in the relevant constituency decreases)" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
P 1, " The Act places a ceiling on permissible election campaign expenses incurred by presidential candidates, connecting that ceiling with the number of voters, as has been the case with candidates in local elections. (ISK 35 million)" (Government of Iceland Prime Minister's Office (2010) Progress Report on RC-III Iceland, The Implementation of the Recommendations of GRECO on Iceland of party funding (theme II))
Feedback
34. If there are limits on the amount a candidate can spend what is the limit for spending?
If there is a limit on the amount that a candidates can spend, this question covers that amount
 No data
 Not applicable
(Custom values also allowed)
Code
 ISK 35,000,000 [I$ 287,000] (Presidential candidates), ISK 100,000 [I$ 820] (candidate nomination)
If you code “NO” on question 33, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on that question, code “ND”.

Give information about the spending limit for candidates (in the currency used in the regulation, noting which one that is) and add if the limit is for a certain time period, for an election and also if it is per constituency or per voter etc.

If you find no information about the limit (such as if it is stated that the limit is to be set by an institution), code “ND” and give details in an external comment.
Comment
The limit only relates to the candidate selection phase (primaries)
Type
 Written
Quote
P 7, "The costs for individual candidates running for internal party selection processes (primaries) must not exceed 1,000,000 ISK (8,295 EUR) in addition to a supplement which is calculated in inverse proportion to the number of inhabitants entitled to vote in the relevant electoral district (the calculation of the supplement increases as the number of voters in the relevant constituency decreases)" (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
P 1, " The Act places a ceiling on permissible election campaign expenses incurred by presidential candidates, connecting that ceiling with the number of voters, as has been the case with candidates in local elections. (ISK 35 million)" (Government of Iceland Prime Minister's Office (2010) Progress Report on RC-III Iceland, The Implementation of the Recommendations of GRECO on Iceland of party funding (theme II))
Feedback

Reporting, oversight and sanctions

35. Do political parties have to report regularly on their finances?
To ensure transparency in political party finance, some countries require that political parties submit regular financial reports (such as quarterly or annually), whether or not an election has taken place during this period.
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date).

If there any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements regularly (often annually), code “YES”. Add any details in an external comment.

If political party or political finance legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
35, "The Boards of political parties and managing directors are responsible for the preparation of an annual financial report, including an income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, notes and the report of the board (Article 15, Rules on the Financial Accounts of Political Parties etc)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
Feedback
36. Do political parties have to report on their finances in relation to election campaigns?
To ensure transparency in campaign finance, some countries require that political parties submit special financial reports in relation to election campaigns
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
Note that this question does not relate to any financial reports, statements or disclosure that political parties need to make regularly (such as annually), only such made in relation to election campaigns (such as submitting certain information before or after an election date).

If there are any requirements that political parties or any institution within political parties must provide certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign, code “YES”. Add any details in an external comment.

If political party, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of political parties having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Type
 Written
Quote
Section 35. "The Boards of political parties and managing directors are responsible for the preparation of an annual financial report, including an income statement, balance sheet, statement of cash flows, notes and the report of the board (Article 15, Rules on the Financial Accounts of Political Parties etc)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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37. Do candidates have to report on their campaign finances?
To ensure transparency in campaign finance, some countries require that candidates submit special financial reports in relation to election campaigns
 Yes
 No
 No data
Code
 Yes
If there are any requirements that candidates must submit certain financial information, submits reports or makes financial statements in relation to an election campaign, code “YES”.

If, political finance or electoral legislation makes no mention of candidates having to submit any financial records, reports or statements, or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Candidates who spend less than 300,000 ISK [I$ 2,500] are exempt from reporting.
Type
 Law
Quote
Art 10, "Frambjóðendur skulu gera uppgjör fyrir kosningabaráttu sína í samræmi við almennar reikningsskilareglur og fela endurskoðendum endurskoðun þess. Ríkisendurskoðun gefur út leiðbeiningar um uppgjör fyrir kosningabaráttu og um upplýsingaskyldu um uppgjörið. Frambjóðendur í persónukjöri eru undanþegnir uppgjörsskyldu ef kostnaður við kosningabaráttu er ekki umfram 300.000 kr." (Lög um fjármál stjórnmálasamtaka og frambjóðenda og um upplýsingaskyldu þeirra (Law 162/2006))
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38. Is information in reports from political parties and/or candidates to be made public?
Even if political parties and/or candidates have to submit financial reports, full transparency is not achieved unless these reports (or the information therein) is made available to the public
 Yes
 No
 No data
 Not applicable
Code
 Yes
If you code “NO” on all of questions 35, 36 and 37, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

If it is stated that some or all of the submitted information submitted is made public, including being printed in a gazette, put on a website or made available at an office, code “YES”. If there is any information that does not need to be made public, note this in an external comment. Also code “YES” if political parties are required to make information public themselves in whatever format.

If there are no statements that submitted financial reports is made public in political party, political finance or electoral laws (as applicable), or if a written source or expert witness states that there are no such requirements, code “NO”. Also code “NO” if it explicitly stated that the received information will be confidential (or similar wording).

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Only certain information.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 2, " The Act stipulates which information from the accounts of political organisations and candidates shall be made public." (Government of Iceland Prime Minister's Office (2010) Progress Report on RC-III Iceland, The Implementation of the Recommendations of GRECO on Iceland of party funding (theme II))
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39. Must reports from political parties and/or candidates reveal the identity of donors?
Some argue that in the interest of transparency the identity or all those making donations must be revealed in financial transports, whereas see this as an invasion of privacy. In some cases a compromise is reached by demanding that the identity of donors is revealed if the donations exceed a certain value
 Yes
 Sometimes
 No
 No data
 Not applicable
Code
 Sometimes
Code “YES” if there is a requirement for political parties or candidates to report on the identity of the persons or entities that have provided donations or contributions. This could include a general provision to reveal the identity of donors or a more specific requirement to put names, address etc of contributors in financial reports being made.

Code “SOMETIMES” if only donations above a certain value has been given or if there are other limitations to when a donor’s identity must be revealed, and note details in an external comment.

Code “NO” if it is explicitly stated that political parties do not have to reveal the identity of donors, or if there are no provisions on this issue at all.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about the identity of donors, code “ND”.
Comment
All donations from legal persons and donations over ISK 300,000 [I$ 2,500] from individuals must be made public.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 1, "Names of individuals contributing more than ISK 200,000.00 to political parties or candidates are to be made public. The anonymity threshold is therefore reduced from ISK 300,000.00 to ISK 200,000.00 for individual donors. The statutory rule requiring that all donations from legal entities be made public remains unchanged." (Government of Iceland Prime Minister's Office (2010) Progress Report on RC-III Iceland, The Implementation of the Recommendations of GRECO on Iceland of party funding (theme II))
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40. What institution(s) receives financial reports from political parties and/or candidates?
The question deals with the institution(s) that to which political parties and/or candidates have to submit financial reports, either regular reports or in relation to election campaigns.
 EMB
 Ministry
 Special institution
 Court
 Auditing agency
 Other
 No data
 Not applicable
(Multiple codes allowed)
Code
 Auditing agency
If you code “NO” on all of questions 35, 36 and 37, code “NA” on this question. If you code “ND” on all those questions, code “ND”.

Note which type of institution(s) that has a mandate to receive financial statements from political parties and or candidates, either regularly or in relation to elections.

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”.

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”.

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.

If neither political parties nor candidates need to submit any financial reports, code “NA”
Comment
National Audit Office
Type
 Written
Quote
P 8, "Pursuant to Article 9 of Law No. 162/2006, political parties have to submit a consolidated financial report (where annual accounts of political parties and those of the units falling within their scope have been merged into a single account) to the National Audit Office on an annual basis." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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41. Is it specified that a particular institution(s) is responsible for examining financial reports and/or investigating violations?
Regulations are unlikely to be respected unless some institution(s) has the responsibility to oversee them. Having a mandate to receive financial reports does not necessarily mean that the institution is also required to review these reports, nor to investigate other breaches. This question covers what institution(s) has a responsibility to monitor political finance and to examine potential abuses
 Yes, EMB
 Yes, ministry
 Yes, court
 Yes, auditing agency
 Yes, other
 Yes, institution for this purpose
 No
 No data
(Multiple codes allowed)
Code
 Yes, auditing agency
Note which type of institution that has a mandate to investigate breaches of financial rules by political parties, candidates or other actors, either regularly or in relation to elections. The answer may or may not be the same as in questions 40.

If it is the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

If it is a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”.

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”.

If more than one institution is involved, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
National Audit Office.
Type
 Written
Quote
P 10, "The National Audit Office is vested with wide investigative powers to, at any time, call for all necessary documents to verify that the funding received by political parties complies with the requirements of Law No. 162/2006 (Article 8, Law No 162/2006)." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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42. What other institutions have a formal role in political finance oversight?
Apart from receiving reports and investigating breaches, there may be other institutions having formal roles in political finance oversight. This may for example include administering the provision of public funding, applying sanctions or hearing appeals.
 EMB
 Ministry
 Court
 Auditing agency
 Other
 Institution for this purpose
 No data
 None
(Multiple codes allowed)
Code
 Court
Note any other institutions apart from those noted in questions 40 and 41 that have a formal role in relation to political parties or election finance. This could for example be a body that receives (but does not investigate) complaints or which hears appeals in related cases. More than one answer is allowed, and give details in an external comment.

If the electoral commission or similar institution, code “EMB”.

If a Ministry or a person or institution within a Ministry, code “MINISTRY”.

If it an institution with the specific purpose to oversee political parties or political party/campaign finance, code “SPECAL INST.”

If is a court or a person or institution within a court, code “COURT”.

If it is institution such as a national auditing bureau, code “AUDITING AGENCY”

If it is some other form of institution, code “OTHER”.

If more than one institution is involved, such as if one institution deals with political party breaches and one with election infractions, code all that apply.

If you cannot find information, code “ND”.
Comment
Decisions can be appealed to the Supreme Court
Type
 Written
Quote
P 11, "Infringements – whether intentional or due to gross negligence - of the provisions contained in Law No. 162/2006 are sanctioned with fines or imprisonment of up to six years (Article 12, Law No. 162/2006). It is possible to appeal the court’s decision before the Supreme Court." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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43. What sanctions are provided for political finance infractions?
To ensure compliance, political finance regulations must be accompanied with sanctions against breaches. This question covers the different sanctions that are applicable for violations such as failing to submit accurate financial reports, receiving funds from prohibited sources, exceeding spending limits, abusing state resources or buying votes.
 No data
 None
 Not applicable
 Fines
 Prison
 Forfeiture
 Loss of public funding
 Deregistration of party
 Loss of nomination of candidate
 Loss of political rights
 Loss of elected office
 Suspension of political party
 Other
(Multiple codes allowed)
Code
 Fines
 Prison
 Forfeiture
Note all types of sanctions that may be applied in case of offences related to political party or campaign finance. Multiple alternatives can be given.

If a political party, candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a fine or other financial penalty, code “FINE”.

If a candidate or other actor (such as party officials, donors or party/candidate auditors) may be given a prison sentence, code “PRISON”.

If a political party or candidate has to return amounts received against the rules, or forward the amount (or a multiple of the amount) to someone else, such as the EMB, code “FORFEITURE”).

If there are offences or infractions relating to political party finance which can lead to direct public funding being withheld/reduced/stopped or demanded in return, code “LOSS OF PUBLIC FUNDING”

If a political party may be deregistered for offences relating to political finance, code “DEREGISTRATION OF PARTY”.

If a candidate may lose her/his nomination to stand for election for offences relating to political finance, code “LOSS OF NOMINATION OF CANDIDATE”.

If a person may lose the right to vote and to be elected or in cases of ineligibility for certain employment or a general suspension of political rights code “LOSS OF POLITICAL RIGHTS”. Note that for cases where a person already has been nominated, the code “loss of nomination of candidate” should be used.

If it is stated that a person who has won an elected position may be deprived of it code “LOSS OF ELECTED OFFICE”.

If it is stated that a political party may temporarily be banned either from participating in elections or more generally from carrying out political party activities code “SUSPENSION OF POLITICAL PARTY”.

If there are other types of sanctions apart from those noted above, code “OTHER”. If so, you must give details in an external comment.

If there are no provisions for sanctions regarding breaches of political finance regulations, code “NONE”.

If there are no regulations whatsoever relating to political finance (and so there cannot be any sanctions), code “NA”.

If you judge that there may likely be regulations you have not been able to access about this issue, code “ND”.
Comment
Violation can bring fines or prison (up to two years).
Type
 Law  Written
Quote
Art 11, " Hver sem tekur við framlögum, eða jafnvirði þeirra, sem óheimilt er að veita viðtöku skv. 6. gr. eða hærri framlögum en heimilt er skv. 7. gr. skal sæta sektum eða fangelsi allt að tveimur árum." (Lög um breytingu á lögum nr. 162/2006, um fjármál stjórnmálasamtaka og frambjóðenda og um upplýsingaskyldu þeirra (Law 119/2010))
P 6, "Donations in excess of the 300,000 ISK (2,488 EUR) threshold are to be returned as promptly as possible. If returning of such donations proves to be impossible, they are to be kept separately in the accounts of political parties and electoral candidates and deposited on a separate time-deposit account (Article 2, Rules on the Financial Accounts of Political Parties etc)." P 11, "Infringements – whether intentional or due to gross negligence - of the provisions contained in Law No. 162/2006 are sanctioned with fines or imprisonment of up to six years (Article 12, Law No. 162/2006). It is possible to appeal the court’s decision before the Supreme Court." (GRECO (2008) Evaluation Report on Iceland, Transparency of Party Funding (Theme II))
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